Notes on Program Design, Implementation, and Evaluation 1: Leadership

I am taking a class on Program Design, Implementation, and Evaluation this semester. This is part of my Master’s in Youth Development. To make my notes more accessible, I decided to put them here. Our textbook is “Effectively Managing and Leading Human Service Organizations, 4th Ed.” by Ralph Brody and Murali Nair. 

These are my notes from the chapters I am reading. 

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Chapter 1: Leading the Organization

Effective managers have “the ability to produce results based on their leadership abilities.”

“Effective managers must provide both visionary leadership and day-to-day administrative direction.”

“Managers” and “Leaders” are interchangeable.

Leadership Styles

  • Directive leadership – the leader functions as a taskmaster or an orchestra conductor, and staff are expected to follow to achieve results.
  • Participative leadership – the leader has the final decision but invites input from subordinates. This style emphasizes relationships.
  • Delegative leadership – willing give subordinates the power to decide on important matters.

Different staff or subordinates tend to receive these leadership styles differently. Experienced and knowledgeable staff may be predisposed toward the latter two styles of leadership. But if staff lack experience and knowledge, they may prefer the first style.

Other situational factors also affect the appropriate leadership style in the organization:

  • The organization’s size and structure
  • Problems that the organization faces
  • Time pressure

Effective leaders need to be able to balance the different leadership styles when they are called for. A combination of these styles can help achieve results within the organization.

Challenges of Leadership

  • The Oblivious Manager
  • The Misleader
  • The Put-Downer
  • The Micromanager
  • The Arrogant Manager
  • The Narcissist
  • The Loner
  • The Charmer

Leadership Competencies

Effective managers need to be aware of their strengths and flaws. “Effective managers evidence an outstanding ability to get things done.”

  • Articulating a Future Orientation:
    • Effective leaders are aware of trends,
    • They can articulate a vision and get stakeholders on board with the vision,
    • They are always looking for ways to improve.
  • Being a Social Entrepreneur
    • “Leaders develop a vision of how to achieve their goals and are determined to make their vision work.”
    • It’s not enough to articulate a vision, effective leaders need to find a way to implement the vision in spite of difficulties and setbacks.
  • Treating Staff with Dignity
  • Communicating Significant Messages
  • Engendering Trust
    • Integrity is of utmost importance for leaders.
    • Leaders lead by example and would not ask from others what they are not willing to do.
  • Inspiring Top-Level Performance
    • They raise the bar for the organization.
    • “Managers… bring order and consistency to complex organizations. Leaders challenge the status quo and work to meet new demands.”

Attributes Contributing to Leadership

  • Self-awareness – leaders know their strengths and weaknesses.
  • Self-regulation – they can control impulses and have the ability to delay decisions and judgments.
  • Motivation – they have a desire to excel and motivate others to do so.
  • Empathy – considering the feelings of staff is also important.
  • Social Skills – leaders know how to build relationships with others.




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